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國家最高科學技術獎20年其中21人來自北京國家科學技術獎
2020-01-11 18:15   来源:  www.deepdivescuba.com   评论:0 点击:

國家最高科學技術獎20年其中21人來自北京國家科學技術獎2019年度国家科学技术奖共评选出296个项目和12名科

  2019年度国家科学技术奖共评选出296个项目和12名科技专家,其中,中国工程院院士黄旭华和中国科学院院士曾庆存分获国家最高科学技术奖。

A total of 296 projects and 12 science and technology experts were selected for the 2019 National Science and Technology Awards, of which, academicians of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, Huang Xuhua, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zeng Qing, won the top national science and technology award.

  北京日报(ID:Beijing_Daily)记者注意到,自2000年设立国家最高科学技术奖以来,33名获奖者中,有21人来自北京。

The Beijing_Daily reporter noted that 21 of the 33 winners have come from Beijing since the country's top science and technology award was set up in 2000.

  国家最高科学技术奖于2000年由中华人民共和国国务院设立,每年不超过两人的国家最高科学技术奖,是中国科技界的最高荣誉。

The State Supreme Science and Technology Award was established by the State Council of the People's Republic of China in 2000.

  北京地区单位主持完成的71项成果荣获国家科学技术奖,其中特等奖1项、一等奖4项,二等奖66项,占全国通用项目获奖总数的%。作为全国科技创新中心,北京创新发展实现了瞩目的成就,在基础研究、关键核心技术等领域取得了累累硕果,支撑了创新型国家和世界科技强国建设。

The 71 achievements completed under the auspices of the Beijing regional units were awarded the National Science and Technology Award, of which one was the first prize, four were the first prize and 66 were the second prize, accounting for% of the total number of awards for general projects in the country. As the national scientific and technological innovation center, Beijing has achieved remarkable achievements in innovation and development, and has made numerous achievements in basic research, key core technology and other fields, supporting the construction of innovative countries and the world scientific and technological power.

  从去年开始,不仅大奖获得者奖金提升到了800万元,而且分配结构也进行改革,奖金全部归属个人支配,国家科学技术奖三大奖奖金额度也同步提高50%。

Since last year, not only has the prize winner's bonus been raised to 8 million yuan, but the distribution structure has also been reformed, the bonus all belongs to the individual control, and the national science and technology award three big prize bonus quota also increases 50% simultaneously.

  据媒体报道,在去年得奖后,钱七虎院士将800万元奖金全部捐献出来,用于慈善事业,在家乡昆山成立助学基金。

According to media reports, after winning the prize last year, Qian Qihu academician donated all the 8 million yuan bonus to charity, and set up a student fund in his hometown of Kunshan.

  “800万我现在还没概念,我曾经和大家讲过,这个钱我不要,给了会变成我的负担,处理不好会惹祸。我会和单位好好商量一下,至少要拿出相当一部分给我们单位设立一个奖励基金。具体现在还没计划,不能夸海口。”

“8 million I don't have a concept right now, I told you, I don't want the money, it's going to become a burden to me, it's going to be bad. I will discuss with the unit, at least to put out a considerable part of our unit to set up a reward fund. There's no plan yet, you can't boast about it.

  黄旭华,中国工程院院士,中国第一代攻击型核潜艇和战略导弹核潜艇总设计师,被誉为“中国核潜艇”之父。正是他带领着我国一批科研人员隐姓埋名,刻苦攻坚,让中国人有了一柄不再受人威胁的“利剑”。2019年9月17日,国家主席习近平签署主席令,授予黄旭华“共和国勋章”。

Huang Xuhua, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, chief designer of China's first generation attack-type nuclear submarine and strategic missile submarine, is known as the father of \"China's nuclear submarine \". It is he who led a group of scientific researchers incognito, hard to attack, so that the Chinese have a no longer threatened \"sword.\" On September 17,2019, President Xi Jinping signed a presidential order granting Huang Xuhua a \"Republic Medal.\"

  1926年,黄旭华生于广东海丰县。1958年,我国核潜艇工程正式立项,黄旭华秘密赴京,被任命为核潜艇研制总工程师。此后30年,他始终没有告诉家人工作内容,外界亲友更是完全不知道他在哪,在做些什么。唯一的联系方法就是一个编号为145的内部信箱。直到2013年,他的事迹逐渐“曝光”,亲友们才得知原委。

In 1926, Huang Xuhua was born in Haifeng County, Guangdong Province. In 1958, China's nuclear submarine project was formally approved, and Huang Xuhua went to Beijing in secret and was appointed chief engineer for the development of nuclear submarines. For the next 30 years, he never told his family what he was doing, and friends and family didn't know where he was or what he was doing. The only contact method is an internal mailbox numbered 145. It wasn't until 2013 that his story was gradually \"exposed\" that relatives and friends learned about it.

  1988年南海深潜试验,黄旭华曾顺道探视老母,95岁的母亲与儿子对视却无语凝噎。此时距离他们母子分别已有30年,62岁的黄旭华也已双鬓染上白发。黄旭华的父亲到去世都不知道自己的儿子在做什么。

In 1988, mr huang visited his mother, a 95-year-old mother who looked at her son without choking. It was 30 years since their mother and son were separated, and Huang Xuhua,62, had white hair on his temples. Huang Xuhua's father did not know what his son was doing until he died.

  为了不受外国列强的欺凌,中国人必须研制出自己的核潜艇,但研制难度极大:没有人见过真正的核潜艇,他们仅有的实物材料是两只从国外带回来的儿童核潜艇玩具模型。

In order not to be bullied by foreign powers, the chinese must develop their own nuclear submarines, but the development is extremely difficult: no one has ever seen a real nuclear submarine, and their only physical material is a model of two children's nuclear submarines brought back from abroad.

  即便如此,科研人员也一丝不苟开始了研究。通过计算、对比,他们发现玩具模型与搜集到的媒体资料数据吻合,这让所有人都信心大增。研制的每一个环节,几乎都是一次挑战。当时没有电脑,所有数据只能靠算盘和计算尺。常常为了一个数据,他们会日夜不停地计算,争分夺秒。

Even so, researchers have meticulously begun research. By calculating and comparing, they found that the toy model matched the data collected from the media, which boosted everyone's confidence. almost every link of the development is a challenge. There was no computer at the time, and all the data could only be counted on the abacus and the scale. Often for the sake of a data, they will be counting day and night, race against the clock.

  终于,在黄旭华和所有工程师的共同努力下,1970年,中国第一艘鱼雷攻击型核潜艇下水。1974年8月1日,中国第一艘核潜艇被命名为“长征一号”,正式列入海军战斗序列。至此中国成为世界上第五个拥有核潜艇的国家。

  在科研试验过程中,黄旭华经常身先士卒。1988年,某新型号的潜艇在研制最后阶段必须进行极限深度的深潜试验。深潜试验,风险很大,任何一条焊缝,一条管道,一个阀门,若承受不起海水压力,都会造成艇废人亡。黄旭华不顾劝阻,执意要求一起进艇下潜。

In the course of scientific research experiment, Huang Xuhua often leads the way. In 1988, a new type of submarine had to be tested for the ultimate depth in the final stages of its development. Deep diving test, the risk is high, any weld, a pipe, a valve, if cannot withstand the sea pressure, will cause the boat to die. In spite of his dissuasion, Huang Xuhua insisted on going into the boat together.

  核潜艇开始是以50米、10米下潜,后来陆续5米、1米慢慢越潜越深,快到300米时,潜艇顶壳承受着巨大的水压,多个位置咔咔作响。这样的声音在水下300米深处令人毛骨悚然。黄旭华镇定自若,指挥试验人员记录各项有关数据,直至最后胜利。成功后,黄旭华兴奋地拿起笔写了几个字:花甲痴翁,志探龙宫。惊涛骇浪,乐在其中!黄旭华亲自下潜300米,成为世界上核潜艇总设计师亲自下水做深潜试验的第一人。

The submarine began to dive at 50 meters,10 meters, and then gradually 5 meters,1 meters slowly deeper and deeper, as soon as 300 meters, the top shell of the submarine was subjected to huge water pressure, multiple positions clicked. Such sounds are creepy 300 metres underwater. Huang Xuhua calmed down and directed the testers to record the data until the final victory. After success, Huang Xuhua excitedly picked up a pen to write a few words: Hua Jia Chi Weng, Zhi Tan Long Gong. The waves are rough, and the joy is in them! Huang Xuhua himself dived 300 meters, becoming the world's chief designer of nuclear submarines in person to do deep diving test.

  中国科学院院士、中科院大气物理研究所研究员曾庆存是我国气象预报事业的泰斗,他在国际上首创了半隐式差分法,成功用于短期数值天气预报,开启了数值天气预报应用的先河。如今在数值天气预报模式的支持下,我国的天气预报整体准确率已经位居世界前列,大大降低了气象灾害给人类生产生活带来的损失。因为杰出的成就和贡献,2016年,联合国世界气象组织授予他该组织的最高奖—国际气象组织奖。

Zeng Qingcun, a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and research fellow of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is a champion of meteorological forecasting in China. Nowadays, with the support of the numerical weather forecast model, the overall accuracy of weather forecast in China has been in the forefront of the world, which has greatly reduced the loss of human production and life caused by meteorological disasters. Because of outstanding achievements and contributions, in 2016, the United Nations World Meteorological Organization awarded him the top prize of the organization, the International Meteorological Organization Award.

  1935年,曾庆存出生在广东阳江的一个贫困农民家庭。1952年,他顺利考入北京大学物理系,之后又响应号召,改学气象学科。大学毕业之后,曾庆存被选派进入苏联科学院应用地球物理研究所学习,师从著名气象学专家基别尔。也是在这里,他取得了在气象领域开展数值预报的巨大突破。

In 1935, Zeng Qingcun was born into a poor peasant family in Yangjiang, Guangdong. In 1952, he successfully admitted to the physics department of Peking University, and then responded to the call to study meteorology. After graduating from university, mr tseng was selected to study at the institute of applied geophysics at the soviet academy of sciences, where he worked as a leading meteorology expert, kibel. It was also here that he made a huge breakthrough in numerical forecasting in the field of meteorology.

  当时,国外科学家们已经尝试开展数值预报,即根据大气动力学原理建立描述天气演变过程的方程组,输入观测资料作为初值,用计算机数值求解来预测未来天气。但预报效果并不理想,因为原始方程组包含需要计算的大气要素变量很多,例如温度、气压、湿度、风向、风速等等,又包含有涡旋和各种波动的运动过程,计算非常复杂。曾庆存几经失败,苦读冥思,终于悟通关键所在,首创出“半隐式差分法”数值预报。这项成果立即在莫斯科世界气象中心应用,预报准确率前所未有地提升到了61%。自此,数值预报才成为气象预报的主要方法。

At that time, foreign scientists had tried to carry out numerical prediction, that is, to establish a set of equations describing the evolution of the weather according to the principle of atmospheric dynamics, to input the observation data as the initial value, and to use the computer numerical solution to predict the future weather. But the prediction effect is not ideal, because the original equation system contains a lot of variables of atmospheric elements to be calculated, such as temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind direction, wind speed and so on, but also contains the motion process with vortex and various fluctuations, and the calculation is very complicated. After several failures, tsang qing-cun studied hard and finally realized the key point of understanding. This result was immediately applied to the World Meteorological Centre in Moscow, where the accuracy of the forecast had increased to 61 per cent. Since then, numerical forecasting has become the main method of weather forecasting.

  回国后,曾庆存又在气象卫星领域作出了巨大贡献。1974年他发表了长达30万字的专著《大气红外遥测原理》,为利用卫星进行气象监测打下了理论基础。直到今天,这一理论都没有过时,确保我国的气象遥感技术处于全球领先的国家行列。

After returning to China, Zeng made great contributions in the field of meteorological satellites. In 1974 he published a 300,000-word monograph, The Principles of Atmospheric Infrared Telemetry, which laid the theoretical foundation for using satellites for meteorological monitoring. To this day, this theory is not outdated, ensuring that our meteorological remote sensing technology is among the leading countries in the world.

  如今,85岁高龄的曾庆存还坚守在科研一线。只要身体允许、没有出差,他几乎天天会去大气物理所的办公室,看看青年科研人的研究进度,听听他们的想法。他一直在关注青年科研人的成长,为他们取得的每一步成就而喜。

Today, mr. tseng,85, is sticking to the scientific front line. As long as he is physically permitted and not on business, he goes to the offices of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics almost every day to see how young researchers are doing their research and hear what they think. He has been focusing on the growth of young researchers, happy for every step they have achieved.


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